How to Homeschool....
What's the difference between home education and distance education?
With home education, parents develop or adapt their own program for the child. The parent or a teacher engaged or employed by the parent, is the educator of the child. The educator plans, implements and evaluates the child's learning from one year to the next. The parent whose name appears on the application form is legally responsible for ensuring that their child receives a high quality education, irrespective of whoever else may assist with the child's education.
With distance education, a parent enrols their child in a school of distance education and a school program is provided by that school for the child. Teachers are available to help monitor the child's learning and a teacher from the school reports on the child (as in mainstream schools). The parent is the supervisor or home tutor to the child within their home. There are state schools and accredited non-state schools of distance education.
Types of Learning
*Traditional School-at-Home Methods
Most homeschooling parents start here, emulating how the child learned at school, or copying how they were taught as a child. This method works well with children who respond well to order and structure. The homeschooling day is set up using a regular time table, progress is charted with check-lists, and curriculum texts are used in each of the nationally accredited subject areas. This approach usually includes grading, testing, adherence to daily schedules and school terms.
The child's education is built around the child's interest with the child determining how, when, and what to learn. Unschooling is a rejection of school-based methods of instruction, preferring to use whatever is useful to facilitate learning. The parent is not regarded as a 'teacher' but as a 'facilitator' - someone who helps the child find appropriate resources to support learning. The emphasis in on retaining, or rediscovering, the child's natural inclination and enthusiasm for learning.
Unit Studies: A Topic-Based Approach to Learning
Unit studies begin with a democratically chosen topic or theme, around which a collection of educational activities is built which touch upon learning in all curriculum areas. Often the topic chosen is of high interest to the child. Unit studies can be tailored to suit the needs of different age or ability children in the family, with everyone studying the same topic, but different elements and at different levels at the same time. A unit study continues until interest wanes, or projects and activities are completed. Families who use unit studies as their main approach often complete 'lap books' or web sites as permanent records of the study.
Natural Learning / Informal Learning / Natural Curriculum
Similar to Unschooling, where learning is personally meaningful and of high interest to the child, but less 'child-directed' and more 'family-centred'. Children learn the skills and knowledge necessary for healthy and holistic development and growth within the everyday context of home and community. There is an emphasis on learning life-skills, as well as practical activities and skills, development of work ethic, self-reliance and service to others.
The three-part classical method is intended to literally 'train a child's mind'. This approach teaches children to think, rather than teaching 'subjects'. At its core is the ' Trivium ', an educational process that recognises that children learn differently at different ages. It begins by teaching children basic facts across all subjects, then encourages the development of independent or abstract thought, before finally producing adolescents who can reason and use language to communicate eloquently. It is a rigorous and structured approach.
Charlotte Mason, a 19th century educational reformer and devout Christian, believed in promoting the value of good habits, nature study and insisted that children learn from quality literature - "living books". Narration - the retelling of what has been read or learned - is used to demonstrate learning and comprehension. Copy-work reinforces thoughts and ideas while simultaneously teaching handwriting. A sense of the 'big picture' of human history is taught through the use of a "century book".Combines practical life skills with a sound literature based education.
Waldorf / Steiner Influenced Education
Holistic in nature, Steiner education educates the whole child with its motto of "head, heart and hands". Younger children focus on arts and crafts, music and movement, and nature in a strict progression and structured way. Reading is taught from age seven. Older children learn self-awareness and reasoning skills. Children do not use text books in the early years; instead they create their own books and understanding. Television and computers are deemed deleterious to creativity. There is an emphasis on natural materials and spiritual development.
In a controlled learning environment made up of 'learning centres' stocked with Montessori learning materials, children learn at their own pace by freely selecting highly structured activities developed to teach innately those things the child is developmentally ready to learn. Montessori materials are generally made from natural materials and there is an emphasis on learning life and practical skills. Many families find they are able to make their own Montessori materials following instructions found on the internet.
Many homeschooling families relax into an 'eclectic' approach, selecting the best teaching strategies from various sources, including the different homeschooling approaches. This approach generally builds on individual children's learning styles and needs as well as the needs of the homeschooling family. It is highly flexible to changes in circumstances and can easily capitalise on learning opportunities as they arise.
Once available only to remote students through the state school system, distance education is available through private correspondence schools, and usually offer a Christian based curriculum. Enrolled students learn via correspondence or over the Internet in a traditional 'school-at-home' way, with parents usually marking work which is then sent to be recorded on the student's portfolio. This approach is often expensive and restrictive, requiring families to adhere to a rigid timetable. Certificates are awarded at the completion of school studies.
Computer / Internet based
Instead of using traditional text books, some families use educational computer programs and online learning programs available in all subject areas. Children complete interactive lessons using the computer. Feedback is immediate and some programs automatically compile student progress records. There is opportunity for group learning situations using blogs, forums, chat rooms, etc. Computer based learning needs to be supplemented by physical activities in the traditional subject areas, as well as face-to-face social interaction. Free internet resources take time to find, and good quality programs can be expensive.
School-Sponsored and Part-Time Homeschooling Programs
Some families are able to negotiate part time attendance at school for a variety of reasons. Not officially available in all states, especially in state schools. Private schools may charge a fee. Some schools or programs offer classes in individual subjects, while others offer an entire curriculum. Families lose some homeschooling autonomy.
Using Homeschooling Learning Cooperatives
As the number of homeschooling families increase support groups grow to serve their social and educational needs. In some metropolitan areas informal 'learning cooperatives' evolve over time or are formally begun. These typically offer classes for groups of children in a range of subject areas, to suit the needs of the homeschooling community. Fees are paid to the cooperative or to the individual offering tutorage. As in a school setting, there are rules to be followed as well as timetables and schedules. Homeschool cooperatives usually require parents to supervise their own children at all times whist participating in lessons or group activities. Parents are usually required to become involved in the cooperative in a direct way. More common that homeschool cooperatives are local support groups that offer regular social get-togethers for parents and children in an informal setting, either in a park or playground, or at each others' homes. Individuals and groups organise educational excursions to places of interest or work.